Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reaches the cells of the immune system, affecting your function. In the event of this infection occurs during pregnancy or before pregnancy, the future mother is HIV-positive, immunocompromised and susceptible to opportunistic infections.
The transmission of HIV to the fetus through the mother, can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth and breastfeeding.
In the absence of any intervention, an estimated 15-30% of pregnant HIV positive children can be infected during pregnancy and childbirth and that 10-20% will be through breast milk. The use of specific preventive measures in those periods reduce the transmission of the infection to less than 8-10%, and may even achieve less than 2%.
In this context, the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is increasingly one of the key strategies in the fight against the spread of AIDS. The specific test for HIV in the pré-concepcional period and during pregnancy, in addition to enabling the adoption of measures for reducing the risk of perinatal transmission allows the woman, in the case of asymptomatic HIV, early access to appropriate health care and improve the prognosis of your condition.
For the reasons listed above, the virus HIV screening is required and an integral part of the prenatal evaluation.
For such is the taking of a sample of venous blood, at 14 weeks of gestation. To detect the possible presence of antibodies to HIV, imunoenzimáticos methods, for screening. If this test present reactive values (above the cut-off point), will have to perform a confirmatory test, using the Western Blot technology, to be able to be said the diagnosis of HIV.
Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reaches the cells of the immune system, affecting your function. In the event of this infection occurs during pregnancy or before pregnancy with maternity bags, the future mother is HIV-positive, immunocompromised and susceptible to opportunistic infections.
Both tests detect the presence of specific antibodies produced by the body in response to viral infection: the immunoassay method (ELISA) is a screening test for easy and fast running, very sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of HIV infection, but not 100% specific. A positive result should be confirmed by Western Blot test, confirming the infection.
While the senses ELISA antibodies against specific proteins of HIV in General, the Western Blot test sensing them individually. The execution of this test is more time-consuming and technically more complicated, what justifies that is only used to confirm a positive ELISA test.
In the case of newborns, children of HIV-positive mother, the tests only have full validity antibodies after 18 months, since the existing antibodies in your body may have been inherited from the mother. At the end of this period, if the baby does not have antibodies is because HIV is not present and this becomes negative.
Consensus is the importance of early diagnosis in pregnancy, maternal antiretroviral therapy to start that demonstrably reduce the chance of fetal and perinatal transmission.
By Maria Jose Rego de Sousa, m.d., PhD in Medicine, specialist in clinical pathology
HIV IN PREGNANCY (POGS Region X)
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