Economic Sectors of Syria


Syria has been facing a complex and challenging economic situation due to a prolonged civil conflict that began in 2011. This conflict has led to significant disruptions in the country’s economy, including damage to infrastructure, loss of human capital, and displacement of population. It’s important to note that the economic statistics provided below might have changed since then due to the evolving nature of the situation.


Agriculture has historically been a significant sector of the Syrian economy, providing employment to a substantial portion of the population. Before the conflict, agriculture accounted for a significant portion of Syria’s GDP and played a crucial role in ensuring food security for the population.

According to Smber, major agricultural products included wheat, barley, cotton, fruits, and vegetables. Wheat, in particular, was a staple crop, and the country aimed to achieve self-sufficiency in wheat production. Cotton was another important cash crop, contributing to the country’s export earnings.


Before the conflict, industry was a key contributor to Syria’s economy, with manufacturing and oil refining being notable sectors. The country had a limited industrial base compared to some of its regional neighbors, but it still played a role in employment and economic output.

  • Oil: Syria had a modest oil production capacity and exported oil and petroleum products. The oil sector was a significant source of revenue for the government, and oil exports were a major contributor to foreign exchange earnings.
  • Manufacturing: The manufacturing sector included industries such as textiles, food processing, chemicals, and cement production. However, the manufacturing sector was affected by the conflict, which led to disruptions in production and damaged infrastructure.


The services sector in Syria was also impacted by the conflict, particularly due to the disruption of tourism, trade, and financial activities.

  • Tourism: Before the conflict, Syria had a rich cultural heritage and historical sites that attracted tourists. However, tourism was severely impacted as a result of the ongoing conflict and instability.
  • Trade: The conflict disrupted trade both within the country and internationally. The destruction of infrastructure, border closures, and security concerns hindered the movement of goods and services.
  • Financial Services: The conflict and international sanctions affected Syria’s financial sector. Access to international financial markets was limited, and the value of the Syrian currency, the Syrian pound (SYP), depreciated significantly.

Impact of the Conflict:

The civil conflict in Syria has had devastating consequences on the country’s economy. It has led to a decline in economic activity, massive destruction of infrastructure, displacement of millions of people, and loss of human capital. The conflict has also resulted in a humanitarian crisis, with widespread poverty and food insecurity.

International sanctions imposed on Syria due to the conflict further limited the country’s ability to access global markets, finance, and trade. This had a detrimental impact on various sectors of the economy.


Syria’s economic statistics have been severely affected by the prolonged civil conflict, with disruptions in agriculture, industry, and services. The conflict has caused significant damage to infrastructure, loss of human capital, and displacement of the population. The situation remains complex and fluid, making it important to refer to more recent and authoritative sources for the latest economic statistics and developments in Syria.

Major Trade Partners of Syria

Syria’s international trade has been significantly impacted by the ongoing civil conflict, economic challenges, and international sanctions. The country’s trade relationships have been disrupted, and the trade partners have evolved in response to the changing situation. It’s important to note that the trade dynamics may have changed since then, and the information provided below might not reflect the current state of affairs.

Pre-Conflict Trade Partners:

Before the civil conflict, Syria had established trade relationships with various countries, including those in the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. Some of its major trade partners included:

  1. Iraq: According to COUNTRYAAH.COM, Iraq was one of Syria’s significant trade partners. The two countries shared a long border, which facilitated trade in various goods and commodities.
  2. Turkey: Turkey was another important trade partner for Syria. The two countries engaged in the exchange of goods and energy resources. The border crossing between Syria and Turkey was a vital trade route.
  3. European Union (EU): The EU was a major destination for Syrian exports, including textiles, agricultural products, and machinery. European countries were also sources of imports for Syria.
  4. Russia: Russia had economic ties with Syria, including energy cooperation and trade in various goods.
  5. China: Syria had begun to develop trade relations with China, particularly in terms of infrastructure projects and energy cooperation.

Impact of the Conflict on Trade Partnerships:

The civil conflict, which began in 2011, had a profound impact on Syria’s trade relationships. The destruction of infrastructure, closure of borders, displacement of populations, and economic challenges led to disruptions in trade. International sanctions imposed on Syria by various countries and organizations further complicated trade.

Changing Trade Dynamics:

As the conflict evolved, the trade dynamics for Syria shifted. Some neighboring countries continued to engage in trade, but the volume and nature of trade changed due to the circumstances.

  1. Russia: Russia remained a political ally of Syria during the conflict. While the economic relationship continued to some extent, the volume of trade might have been affected by the ongoing challenges.
  2. Iran: Iran maintained close ties with Syria and provided political and economic support. Trade between the two countries continued, although the conflict and sanctions might have influenced the nature of trade.
  3. Iraq: While the conflict affected trade between Iraq and Syria, the reestablishment of diplomatic ties and the reopening of border crossings in some areas signaled a potential for renewed trade relations.
  4. Turkey: Trade between Syria and Turkey was significantly disrupted due to the conflict. The border crossing points were often closed, impacting the movement of goods and people.
  5. Lebanon: Despite challenges, trade between Lebanon and Syria continued to some extent. Lebanon served as a transit point for some goods.

Humanitarian Aid and Smuggling:

Given the challenges in formal trade routes, informal channels and cross-border smuggling became more prominent. Humanitarian aid also played a crucial role in the exchange of goods, particularly essential supplies like food and medicine.


Syria’s major trade partners have shifted and evolved as a result of the civil conflict, economic challenges, and international sanctions. The ongoing conflict disrupted traditional trade routes and relationships, impacting the volume and nature of trade. Humanitarian aid and informal channels played a role in filling some gaps left by formal trade. It’s important to note that the situation is complex and has likely continued to change. For the most current and accurate information, it’s recommended to refer to up-to-date sources and reports on Syria’s trade partnerships and dynamics.