Economic Sectors of Latvia


Latvia, a small country located in the Baltic region of Europe, has undergone significant economic transformations since gaining independence in 1991. Its economy has transitioned from a planned economy under Soviet rule to a market-oriented one. The Latvian economy is categorized into three main sectors: the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, and fishing), the secondary sector (manufacturing and industry), and the tertiary sector (services). Each sector plays a distinct role in Latvia’s economy, contributing to its GDP, employment, and overall development. In this discussion, we’ll explore the statistics for each economic sector of Latvia.

Primary Sector: The primary sector, though relatively smaller in terms of its contribution to Latvia’s GDP, still plays an important role in rural livelihoods and resource utilization. According to Smber, agriculture is a significant component of this sector, with the cultivation of crops such as grains, potatoes, and vegetables. Livestock farming, including cattle, pigs, and poultry, is also prominent. The forestry sector is another vital part of the primary sector, with Latvia having a considerable forest cover. Timber and wood products are among the main exports.

According to data from the Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia, the primary sector contributed around 3% to Latvia’s GDP in recent years. It employs a smaller proportion of the workforce compared to the other sectors, reflecting a shift of labor toward industry and services.

Secondary Sector: The secondary sector, comprising manufacturing and industry, has historically been a key driver of Latvia’s economic growth. During the Soviet era, Latvia was known for its industrial output, particularly in sectors like machinery, electronics, and textiles. After independence, the country went through a process of modernization and diversification in its industrial base.

Manufacturing in Latvia includes the production of machinery and equipment, food products, chemicals, and textiles. The automotive industry, in particular, has shown growth with the presence of companies involved in car parts production. Additionally, electronics and information technology have become increasingly important.

The secondary sector has contributed significantly to Latvia’s economic growth. Its contribution to GDP has varied over time but generally ranges from 20% to 25%. This sector has also absorbed a substantial portion of the workforce, playing a role in urbanization and job creation.

Tertiary Sector: The tertiary sector, comprising services, has become the largest contributor to Latvia’s GDP and employs a significant portion of the workforce. The services sector includes a wide range of activities such as finance, trade, transportation, education, healthcare, and tourism. Latvia’s geographic location and infrastructure have contributed to its role as a regional transit and logistics hub, facilitating trade between Eastern and Western Europe.

The finance sector, including banking and insurance, has seen notable growth in recent years. Riga, the capital city, has gained prominence as a financial center in the Baltic region. Additionally, tourism has become an increasingly important sector, with visitors attracted to Latvia’s historical sites, cultural events, and natural beauty.

The tertiary sector’s contribution to Latvia’s GDP has consistently been the highest among the three sectors, ranging from around 65% to 75% in recent years. The services sector also accounts for a significant portion of employment, reflecting the country’s shift toward a more service-oriented economy.

Challenges and Opportunities: Latvia’s economy has made remarkable progress since independence, but it still faces various challenges and opportunities:


  1. Population Decline: Latvia has experienced a declining population, which affects the labor force and economic growth potential.
  2. Emigration: High emigration rates have led to a “brain drain,” with skilled workers seeking opportunities abroad.
  3. Low Productivity: Improving productivity remains a challenge, particularly in some sectors like agriculture.
  4. Regional Disparities: There are disparities in economic development between urban and rural areas, as well as between regions.


  1. EU Membership: Latvia’s membership in the European Union provides access to a large market and funding opportunities for various projects.
  2. Digital Innovation: Latvia has the potential to further develop its information technology and digital services sectors.
  3. Tourism: The tourism sector can continue to grow by promoting Latvia’s cultural and natural attractions.
  4. Infrastructure Development: Investment in infrastructure can further enhance connectivity and trade opportunities.

In conclusion, Latvia’s economy is characterized by a diverse mix of economic sectors. The primary sector contributes to resource utilization and rural livelihoods, the secondary sector focuses on manufacturing and industry, and the tertiary sector dominates with its range of services. Challenges such as population decline and low productivity are countered by opportunities stemming from EU membership, digital innovation, and tourism. As Latvia continues to address these challenges and capitalize on opportunities, its economy is poised for further growth and development.

Major Trade Partners of Latvia

Latvia, a Baltic nation in Northern Europe, has a trade-oriented economy that is closely connected to global markets due to its strategic location and membership in the European Union (EU). The country’s major trade partners play a crucial role in its economic activities, influencing its exports, imports, and overall economic growth. Let’s delve into the major trade partners of Latvia and the dynamics of its trade relationships.

  1. European Union (EU) Countries: As an EU member since 2004, Latvia’s trade relationships with other EU countries are of paramount importance. The EU represents a significant portion of Latvia’s trade volume, both in terms of exports and imports. The single market and customs union within the EU provide favorable conditions for trade, allowing the seamless flow of goods, services, and investments. Germany, Sweden, Lithuania, and Estonia are among Latvia’s top trading partners within the EU.
  2. Russia: According to COUNTRYAAH.COM, Russia has historically been one of Latvia’s major trade partners due to geographical proximity and historical ties. While political tensions have occasionally affected the trade relationship, Russia remains an important market for Latvian exports, particularly in the sectors of food products, machinery, and chemicals. Russia is also a source of various imports for Latvia, including mineral products and machinery.
  3. Lithuania and Estonia: Lithuania and Estonia, fellow Baltic states, are close trading partners with Latvia. The three countries share strong economic ties due to their geographic proximity and historical links. These trade relationships have been further enhanced through regional cooperation initiatives, such as the Baltic Sea Region Program. Latvia conducts significant trade with Lithuania and Estonia, exchanging goods and services across various sectors.
  4. United Kingdom: The United Kingdom (UK) has traditionally been a significant trade partner for Latvia. Although the relationship has evolved due to the UK’s exit from the EU (Brexit), the UK remains an important market for Latvian exports, particularly in sectors such as machinery, wood products, and food. The trade agreement between the UK and the EU has helped maintain some continuity in trade relations.
  5. Poland: Poland is another important trade partner for Latvia, driven by a diverse range of traded goods, including machinery, food products, and chemicals. The geographical proximity between the two countries contributes to trade flows, and both are members of the Visegrád Group, fostering regional cooperation.
  6. Sweden: Sweden is a significant trade partner for Latvia, especially in terms of imports. Latvian exports to Sweden include machinery, wood products, and agricultural goods. On the other hand, Latvia imports machinery, vehicles, and pharmaceutical products from Sweden.
  7. Finland: Finland is an important trading partner for Latvia, particularly due to its demand for Latvian wood and wood products. The two countries also collaborate in various sectors, including manufacturing and technology.
  8. China: China’s role as a trade partner for Latvia has been growing steadily. Latvia exports wood products, machinery, and agricultural goods to China. Chinese imports to Latvia include machinery, electronics, and textiles. The Belt and Road Initiative has provided opportunities for increased connectivity and trade between China and Latvia.
  9. Norway: Norway has trade ties with Latvia, with a focus on seafood products, machinery, and fuels. The EEA Agreement, which allows for the free movement of goods, services, people, and capital between EU countries and Norway, has facilitated trade between the two nations.
  10. Belarus: Belarus is a neighboring country with which Latvia maintains trade relations. The two countries engage in trade of various goods, including machinery, metals, and agricultural products.

Challenges and Opportunities: While Latvia’s trade relationships offer various opportunities for economic growth, the country also faces some challenges:


  1. Dependency: Latvia’s trade dependence on certain partners, like Russia, can make the economy vulnerable to geopolitical tensions.
  2. Diversification: Ensuring a diversified portfolio of trading partners reduces risk and enhances stability in the face of global economic fluctuations.
  3. Competitiveness: Maintaining competitiveness in global markets requires continuous efforts to improve productivity, innovation, and product quality.
  4. Transport Infrastructure: The efficiency and capacity of transport infrastructure, such as ports and roads, influence trade flows and connectivity.


  1. EU Membership: EU membership provides access to a vast single market and trade agreements that can drive economic growth.
  2. Infrastructure Development: Improving transport and logistics infrastructure can enhance Latvia’s role as a transit and trade hub.
  3. Emerging Markets: Exploring new trade partners in emerging markets can diversify trade relationships and reduce dependency on specific countries.
  4. Value-Added Products: Focusing on producing higher value-added goods and services can enhance competitiveness and profitability in international markets.

In conclusion, Latvia’s trade relationships are influenced by its geographic location, membership in the EU, and historical ties with neighboring countries. EU member states, Russia, and other neighboring nations are key trade partners that impact Latvia’s exports, imports, and overall economic performance. The challenges and opportunities associated with these trade relationships shape Latvia’s strategies for sustainable economic growth and development.