Costa Rica Politics

Costa Rica Government and Politics

North America

The government of Costa Rica is made up of three branches, separate and independent from each other, the executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judicial branch. The Costa Rican population in general considers the Supreme Electoral Tribunal as the fourth power, however it is not legally recognized as such, but as an autonomous institution. [32]

Executive power

Exercised by the President of the Republic, who is elected by direct, secret and universal vote of the people to govern for a period of 4 years, has among its powers the appointment of the presidents of the Autonomous Institutions, appointment or removal of ministers and Costa Rican diplomats, veto laws, sign decrees, pardon of penalties, national holiday and national mourning or mourning. The current Presidency is occupied by Carlos Alvarado Quesada, since May 8, 2018. He is accompanied by two vice-presidents also elected by popular vote: Epsy Cambell Barr and Marvin Rodríguez Cordero, both also since May 8, 2018.

Legislative power

Held by the Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica, which is a unicameral body with 57 delegations in charge of approving, reforming or repealing laws and decrees. [32] Legislators are elected by direct, secret and universal popular vote for a period of 4 years and have a provincial character. Its attributions include the appointment of magistrates of the Supreme Court of Justice, appointing legislative commissions in charge of studying the bills, approving the Budget of the Republic each November, lifting the diplomatic immunity of the members of the Supreme Powers, reform the Political Constitution, approve or reject international agreements and treaties and call public officials or citizens to render accounts in the cases that are merited. The president of the legislative board may assume the presidency of the Republic in the absence of the president and his vice presidents.

In addition, the Legislative Assembly has two auxiliary bodies: the Office of the Comptroller General of the Republic, which oversees the use of public funds to improve the management of the Public Treasury and contribute to political and citizen control, and the Ombudsman’s Office, which ensures that the activity of the public sector complies with the legal and moral system, in such a way that the rights and interests of the residents of Costa Rica are always protected.

Power of attorney

In 1843 a Constituent Assembly was called and a year later, said Assembly promulgated the new Political Constitution, in which the name of the Supreme Court of Justice is included for the first time and the number of magistrates increased to seven. In 1851, the issuance of the Organic Law of the Judicial Power was decreed, which established the organization of justice and the way to integrate said Power through popularly elected members, not under 30 years of age, jurists or with notorious training in Civil Law. [33] As of March 29, 1887, with the Organic Law of Courts, the independence of the Judicial Power was established for the first time. [33] The September 6 In 1937, with the approval of a new Organic Law of the Judicial Power, the principle of autonomy that it has in the exercise of its functions was reaffirmed and the division of the Supreme Court of Justice into a Civil and Cassation Chamber was established for the first time. other Criminal; and the number of magistrates is increased from 9 to 11. [33] It is the body that administers justice promptly, fully, without denial and in strict accordance with the laws. Whose obligation is basically to enforce the laws of the republic, in addition to the functions that the Constitution indicates, must know of civil, criminal, juvenile, commercial, labor, contentious-administrative and civil processes of finance, constitutional, family and agrarian, as well as the others that the Law establishes; it must decide definitively on them and execute the resolutions it pronounces, with the help of the public force if necessary. [32]

External relationships

As a country located in Central America according to, Costa Rica is a founding member of the United Nations, has diplomatic relations with almost all the countries of America and Europe. During the government of Abel Pacheco (2002 – 2006) re – established consular relations with Cuba, broken since the 60s of the twentieth century after the triumph of the Cuban revolution [34] . Pacheco was criticized for his foreign policy, his support for the Iraq War, and his affinity for Taiwan was questioned. With the second term of Óscar Arias, a series of changes were introduced in the country, support for the Iraq War was withdrawnand diplomatic relations were established with the People’s Republic of China, Montenegro, Uganda, Republic of the Congo, Botswana, Swaziland, Burundi, Guinea and San Marino. Diplomatic relations with Cuba were reestablished on March 18, 2009 [35] and the Costa Rican embassy in Israel was transferred from Jerusalem to Tel Aviv. [36] (gesture immediately imitated by El Salvador, the only two countries with embassies in Jerusalem). Costa Rica did not have diplomatic relations with any Arab country except Lebanon due to the presence of its embassy in Jerusalem, although it currently maintains relations with the Palestinian National Authority, Egypt, Bahrain, Kuwait, Jordan, Oman and Yemen. On January 26, 2010, Arias announced the beginning of diplomatic relations with the emirate of Qatar and the opening of embassies in the capitals of both countries, following the visit of Emir Hamad Al Thani to Costa Rica that same day. It was one of the 130 countries that voted in favor of the incorporation of Palestine as an observer state in the United Nations. Costa Rica is not a member of the Central American Parliament. On three occasions he has been part of the United Nations Security Council: 1974-1975, 1997-1998 and 2008-2009. Perhaps the most complicated situation in Costa Rican diplomatic relations is the long-standing dispute it has with Nicaragua over the right of navigation of the San Juan River.

Administrative division

The territorial division of Costa Rica comprises 7 Provinces divided into 81 Cantons or Municipalities and these in turn, subdivided into 470 Collegiate Districts [37]

Province Cantons Districts Area (km²). Population*
1 Saint Joseph twenty 118 4 965.90 1 633 282
2 Alajuela fifteen 108 9,757.53 876 073
3 Carthage 8 48 3 124.67 510 727
4 Heredia 10 46 2 656.98 449 257
5 Guanacaste eleven 59 10 140.71 280 488
6 Puntarenas eleven 57 11 265.69 368 827
7 Lemon 6 27 9 188.52 444 884
* [Census of the year 2011] [12]

Costa Rica Politics